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3/25/01: The following is a hodgepodge of articles from a variety of sources (ShelterForce Magazine, NeighborWorks, LISC, and HUD) that highlights an interesting question CDCs in Miami-Dade are currently facing: what is the fundamental role of CDCs? Are they just nonprofit affordable housing providers or something much more?
Empowering Redevelopment: Toward
a Different Kind of CDC
The many promoters of CDCs cite their housing productivity. Without CDCs, advocates contend, there would be no redevelopment in urban Americas most deteriorated neighborhoods. Further, CDCs are more likely than for-profit developers to meet the needs of the poor and even raise expectations that will lead to political pressure for social change.
But some activists and analysts counter that however much housing CDCs produce, they have not reversed social decay, empowered community residents, or changed the balance of power at any political level. Some even wonder if CDCs are a case of social movement cooptation. They charge that CDCs have separated from their grassroots base and become just another developer..., rather than organizing and fighting for the social change necessary to sustain communities. While CDCs have taken on a heroic task in trying to rebuild communities devastated by disinvestment, the lack of CDC success at anything but housing is profound, their funding base is threatened more each year, and the reality of their cooptation is generating more and more disillusionment.
New Roles for CDC Movement
An important and positive shift is taking place in the community development movement, a shift that holds great promise for poor communities in America. This shift, known as "community building," has come to stand for a more comprehensive approach to community renewal than has been practiced in the past. It is based on an understanding that the best way to fight poverty and increase economic opportunity in poor neighborhoods is to invest in the kinds of social capital that comprise the "fabric" of community: mutual assistance networks, social and economic relationships, public safety, and education, to name a few. Today, the emergence of the community building movement is challenging community - based organizations such as CDCs to broaden their efforts and reconnect with residents. In the process these same organizations are re - tooling and re - examining their relationship with, and role within, the communities they serve. Practitioners, funders, and policy experts in our field now have an opportunity to practice a more direct and aggressive strategy of community renewal.
While the term "community building" tends to cover a wide range of approaches, for CDCs at least, it has come to be defined by a number of important shifts in the practice of community development:
Most community building efforts challenge CBOs to do more planning, both internally and within their target neighborhoods. In some initiatives, the first year or two of work is dedicated to developing a community plan. This can be a difficult adjustment. Few groups have experience in planning particularly community planning. The entrepreneurial culture of many of our most successful CBOs can work against a serious investment in planning, particularly in organizations where the top staff and key board members see themselves as "product" people and the organizers as the "process" people.
Traditional planning processes have proven to be too limited for this work. Newer, hybrid models that combine community organizing strategies and more creative planning techniques are emerging. These are proving effective in identifying community strengths and assets, and solutions that are more organic to the community's values, culture, and situation.
The Dudley St. Neighborhood Initiative has developed a style of long - term neighborhood planning that is integrated with shorter term community organizing "signature campaigns" short, winnable issue - based efforts that feed people energy and substance to the longer - term, slower - paced planning work. This strategy has proven successful in moving a comprehensive community renewal effort forward. Also, the "asset - based planning" style being taught by John McKnight, Jody Kretzmann, and others is much more conducive to community building work because it focuses on building hope, linkages, and leadership, and teaching people about the inner - workings of their communities.
The future work of community development must be focused on doing a few things well.
1) Developing Core Capacities in Organizing and Planning:
There remain too few opportunities for those in the field particularly young people to access quality training and support in the basic tools of community organizing and community planning, such as community analysis and assessment, one - on - ones, small group facilitation, coalition building, and so on. Unfortunately, much of the organizing training available is either steeped in dogma or directly connected to specific models of organizing. Organizing chauvinism and the myth of pure or "real" organizing has not served our movement well. Not every organizer will be or needs to be another Saul Alinsky. Organizing has to be seen less as a sacred priesthood and more as a set of skills that can be learned and practiced by all kinds of people, in a variety of organizational settings. Specifically, we need to:
One wouldn't build a skyscraper on a foundation of sticks and mud. Yet, there is some danger of this happening in the community - building movement. The foundation of this entire movement is the CBO and its ability to play an effective role both representing and serving its community. Yet there remains comparably little investment in core operating support and helping to re - tool CBOs so they can develop the new capacities needed to do this work effectively. Organizational development resources and technical assistance need to be a sizable component of any community building initiative.
Community building is helping to re - focus our movement on the full range of changes needed to renew community and rebuild poor neighborhoods. It represents a more honest view of the complexity and richness of the struggle. The promise of community building will not fully reveal itself in three years, seven years, or even 10 years. It may require at least a generation of sustained support, dialogue, and major investment in evaluation and peer learning in order to mine from this work the new paradigms that will guide the progress of American community life in the next century.